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2018

  • Protective factors for early psychotic phenomena among children of mothers with psychosis

    Simon Riches, 2018

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  • Adolescents who self-harm and commit violent crime: Testing early-life predictors of dual harm in a longitudinal cohort study

    Leah Richmond-Rakerd, 2018

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  • Exploration of NO2 and PM2.5 air pollution and mental health problems using high-resolution data in London-based children from a UK longitudinal cohort study

    Susanna Roberts, 2018

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  • Adolescent victimization and self-injurious thoughts and behaviors: A genetically sensitive cohort study

    Jessie Baldwin, 2018

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  • Girls get by with a little help from their friends: Gender differences in protective effects of social support for psychotic phenomena amongst poly-victimised adolescents

    Eloise Crush, 2018

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  • Characterizing genetic and environmental influences on variable DNA methylation using monozygotic and dizygotic twins

    E Hannon, 2018

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  • Genetic analysis of social-class mobility: Evidence from five longitudinal studies

    D Belsky, 2018

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  • Maternal Depression in the Intergenerational Transmission of Childhood Maltreatment and Psychological Sequelae: Testing Postpartum Effects in a Longitudinal Birth Cohort

    Karmel Choi, 2018

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  • Is low cognitive functioning a predictor or consequence of major depressive disorder? A test in two longitudinal birth cohorts.

    J Schaefer, 2018

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  • Lonely young adults in modern Britain: findings from an epidemiological cohort study

    Timothy Matthews, 2018

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  • Childhood Maltreatment Predicts Poor Economic and Educational Outcomes in the Transition to Adulthood

    S Jaffee, 2018

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  • Young adult mental health and functional outcomes among individuals with remitted, persistent and late-onset ADHD: Findings from an 18-year prospective cohort of Twins

    Jessica Agnew-Blais, 2018

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  • Genetics and crime: Integrating new genomic discoveries into psychological research about antisocial behaviour

    Jasmin Wertz, 2018

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  • Analysis of DNA methylation in young people reveals limited evidence for an association between victimization stress and epigenetic variation in blood

    S Marzi, 2018

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  • Adolescent victimization and early-adult psychopathology: Approaching causal inference using a longitudinal twin study

    J Schaefer, 2018

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  • Protective factors for psychotic experiences amongst adolescents exposed to multiple forms of victimization

    Eloise Crush, 2018

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  • Associations between abuse/neglect and ADHD from childhood to young adulthood: A prospective nationally-representative twin study

    Adi Stern, 2018

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  • Childhood victimisation and inflammation in young adulthood: A genetically sensitive cohort study

    Jessie Baldwin, 2018

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  • Associations between adolescent cannabis use and neuropsychological decline: A longitudinal co-twin control study

    M. Meier, 2018

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  • From Childhood Conduct Problems to Poor Functioning at Age 18 Years: Examining Explanations in a Longitudinal Cohort Study

    Jasmin Wertz, 2018

    This study aimed to test whether individuals with childhood conduct problems experience poor functioning in emerging adulthood, looking specifically at criminal convictions, smoking, alcohol and psychosocial difficulties. Furthermore, it looked to explain the link between conduct problems and later poor functioning. The findings revealed participants aged 18 with a childhood history of severe conduct problems were more likely to experience a cumulative index of difficulties across multiple spheres of adult life, more than a decade after they had first displayed conduct problems. This was because they were more likely to experience psychopathology as young adults and because they had been exposed to familial risk factors originating in childhood. This study supports comprehensive interventions that address familial risk factors for problem behaviour and target children’s conduct problems from childhood. Because the outcomes are pervasive, treatment could reduce economic burden across multiple sectors such as the judicial system, the health care system, and social services and improve individuals’ health, attainment, and well-being across the life course.

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  • Analysis of DNA Methylation in Young People: Limited Evidence for an Association Between Victimization Stress and Epigenetic Variation in Blood

    Sarah J. Marzi, 2018

    DNA methylation has been proposed as the main process by which early-life experiences can become detrimental to one’s health, learning and behaviour. Considering this, this study examined the relationship between childhood and adolescent victimisation stress and genome-wide DNA methylation. The findings identified adolescence as the peak period of victimisation exposure, in which an association between victimisation and DNA methylation in peripheral blood at age 18 was found. However, tobacco smoking was recognised as a key confounding variable towards this association, hence increasing the difficulty of interpretations. Upon secondary analysis into specific victimisation parameters, limited associations were found between the specific parameter and DNA methylation. Therefore, the study concludes that early-life stress does not alter DNA methylation in victimised youth. However, the importance of DNA methylation within the human body remains. Future studies should avoid using observational methodologies, inclusive of free-ranging humans and relying on peripheral tissue, to yield stronger and more consistent findings.

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  • Childhood victimization and inflammation in young adulthood: A genetically sensitive cohort study

    Jessie R. Baldwin, 2018

    Childhood victimisation is an important risk factor for later immune-related disorders, and previous research has shown that victimised children show elevated inflammation levels in adult life. However, it is unclear whether an association between childhood victimisation and inflammation is 1) already detectable in young people, 2) different in males and females, and 3) confounded by genetic liability to inflammation. This study addressed these questions using data from the E-Risk Study. The results showed that greater exposure to childhood victimisation was associated with higher inflammation levels at age 18, as assessed through C-reactive protein (CRP). However, this association was only found in females, with no significant association in males. Victimised females showed elevated CRP levels independent of latent genetic influences, as well as other key risk factors such as childhood socioeconomic status. These findings suggest that young women who experienced childhood victimisation may benefit from early interventions to target inflammation such as the promotion of physical activity, psychological therapy and anti-inflammatory medicine.

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  • Associations between adolescent cannabis use and neuropsychological decline: a longitudinal co-twin control study

    Madeline H. Meier, 2018

    The debate of cannabis legalisation has led to an increased urgency to understand its effects on health and behaviour. This study looks at whether neuropsychological impairment is apparent in childhood, prior to cannabis use, emerges in adolescence shortly after cannabis use or only appears after years of heavy cannabis use. IQ and executive functioning was measured to look into a decline from ages 12 to 18 yet found weak evidence to support this. Furthermore, cannabis-dependent twins performed similarly to their non-dependent co-twin. The tests were run again based of frequency of use and found a small effect size suggesting a decline in IQ but as no evidence came from discordant twin pairs it suggests family background factors is the reason for this. The primary implication of this study is that relatively short-term cannabis use in adolescence does not appear to cause IQ decline or impair executive functions, even when cannabis use reaches the level of dependence.

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  • Genetics and crime: Integrating new genomic discoveries into psychological research about antisocial behaviour

    Jasmin Wertz, 2018

    Based upon previous criminological theories, this study hypothesised that low educational attainment would predict criminal offending from childhood through to adulthood. Supporting this, the findings revealed a modest, yet greater risk for individuals with lower polygenic scores for educational attainment to commit a crime by midlife. Further analyses identified that individuals who grew up in socioeconomically deprived family environments, with parents who displayed antisocial behaviour and/or left school with poor educational qualifications, were more likely to have a criminal record. Moreover, the findings highlighted the early-emerging psychological and behavioural risk factors that are associated with individuals with low polygenic scores which, consequentially, make them more likely to undergo such criminal activity. Conclusively, the findings demonstrate the importance of molecular-genetic discoveries in antisocial behaviour. The need to identify early-emerging risk factors to improve school experiences and thus prevent this behaviour from arising is also emphasised.

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  • Lonely young adults in modern Britain: Findings from an epidemiological cohort study

    Timothy Matthews, 2018

    Peplau & Perlman (1982) defined loneliness as ‘the feeling that one’s desired quantity or quality of the social connection is unfulfilled’. This study sought to correlate young adults’ self-perceived feelings of loneliness with their childhood experiences and present-day functioning. The findings highlighted the prevalence of loneliness in young adults to be high, but only in a small group. Within this sample, loneliness was correlated with many mental health disorders, such as depression and anxiety, as well as alcohol and cannabis dependence, self-harm, attempted suicide, and previous experiences of bullying. Per contra, loneliness was not associated with early family environmental features, such as parental antisocial behaviour and maternal depression. Therefore, the study concludes that loneliness is an important determinant of later life health and functioning, and a crucial marker for poor functioning across many domains. Early-life interventions are thus needed to prevent and manage the emergence of loneliness in young people.

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  • Adolescent Victimization and Early-Adult Psychopathology: Approaching Causal Inference Using a Longitudinal Twin Study to Rule Out Noncausal Explanations

    Jonathan D. Schaefer, 2018

    Prior research has found a link between adolescents' exposure to victimization and an increased likelihood of developing mental disorders, but the causal relationship is difficult to test in an experiment because of obvious ethical concerns. To study the question using an alternative, yet rigorous, method, the authors employed a longitudinal twin study design. At age 18, participants, their parents, and co-twins provided information regarding the participant's exposure to seven types of victimization between the ages of 12-18 years. Participants were also interviewed about past-year symptoms of mental disorders. The results showed that victimized adolescents were more likely to develop a general liability to multiple forms of mental disorder. Critically, each type of victimization contributed uniquely to mental disorder liability. Longitudinal analyses showed that adolescent victimization predicted mental health problems at age 18 above and beyond childhood mental-health problems. Finally, participants exposed to higher levels of victimization reported more mental-health problems than their less-exposed co-twin, suggesting that the association between victimization and psychopathology cannot be wholly explained by shared genetic or shared environmental influences. The authors conclude that the relationship between victimization exposure and poor mental health is likely to be causal.

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  • Is low cognitive functioning a predictor or consequence of major depressive disorder? A test in two longitudinal birth cohorts

    Jonathan D. Schaefer, 2018

    Cognitive impairment has been identified as an important aspect of major depressive disorder. Schaefer (2017) looks into two theories regarding MDD and cognitive functioning using data from the E-Risk Longitudinal Study and the Dunedin Study. The first theory, the cognitive reserve hypothesis, suggests that higher cognitive ability in childhood decreases risk of later MDD, whereas the second theory, the scarring hypothesis, suggests that MDD leads to persistent cognitive deficits following disorder onset. Contrary to both theories, it was found that low childhood cognitive functioning did not predict future risk of MDD, nor did study members with a past history of MDD showed evidence of greater cognitive decline unless MDD was accompanied by other co-morbid psychiatric conditions. These findings suggest that the persistent cognitive deficits commonly associated with MDD may not be attributable to depression per se, and therefore low IQ should not be considered as a risk factor for MDD.

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  • The Developmental Nature of the Victim-Offender Overlap

    Amber L. Beckley, 2018

    Crime victims and criminal offenders are often the same people, a phenomenon known as the victim-offender overlap, but the developmental nature of this overlap remains uncertain. This study uses a developmental theoretical framework to test effects of genetics, personal childhood characteristics, and an accumulation of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). This study found that E-Risk study members were about 1.5 times as likely to be victim-offenders (29%) compared to victims-only (16%) or offenders-only (20%). In contrast to past twin studies, this study found that environment (as well as genes) contributed to the victim-offender overlap. Results showed that childhood low self-control and childhood antisocial behavior nearly doubled the odds of becoming a victim-offender, compared to a victim-only or an offender-only. Each additional ACE increased the odds of becoming a victim-offender, compared to a victim-only or an offender-only, by approximately 12%, pointing to the importance of cumulative childhood adversity. This study showed that the victim-offender overlap is, at least partially, developmental in nature and predictable from personal childhood characteristics and an accumulation of many adverse childhood experiences.

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  • Associations between abuse/neglect and ADHD from childhood to young adulthood: A prospective nationally-representative twin study

    Adi Stern, 2018

    Childhood maltreatment, including abuse and neglect, affects up to 32% of children worldwide and can lead to negative psychosocial outcomes in later life. Research has identified an association between childhood maltreatment and ADHD, however the direction of this association remains under-investigated. This study aimed to firstly investigate the associations between abuse/neglect and ADHD in childhood and in young adulthood, and secondly to test the longitudinal associations between abuse/neglect and ADHD from childhood to young adulthood. The findings revealed strong associations between abuse/neglect and ADHD in childhood and young adulthood, hence emphasising how this association is not confined to childhood years. In childhood, this association was found to be concentrated among children with conduct disorder. Additionally, longitudinal analyses revealed that childhood ADHD predicted abuse/neglect in later years. This association was also concentrated amongst individuals with comorbid conduct disorder. However, childhood abuse/neglect was not found to predict ADHD in young adulthood. The paper concludes that childhood ADHD is a pivotal risk factor for abuse/neglect in later life. Hence, the importance of clinicians’ awareness of current maltreatment when treating individuals with ADHD, especially with conduct disorder, is emphasised.

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  • Protective factors for psychotic experiences amongst adolescents exposed to multiple forms of victimization

    Eloise Crush, 2018

    Prior research has highlighted adolescent poly-victimisation as a key risk factor towards individuals’ experience of psychotic experiences. However, limited research has been conducted into why these experiences do not emerge among all poly-victimised individuals. This study aimed to examine multi-level protective factors during adolescence which may prevent psychotic experiences emerging. The findings revealed three main preventative factors: engagement in physical activity, social support and social cohesion in the general population. Further findings highlighted poly-victimisation to be more commonly associated with psychotic experiences, with social support being noted as the principal preventative factor consistent amongst poly-victimised adolescents. Interventions should thus focus on enhancing or altering perceptions of social support among individuals exposed to poly-victimisation, as well as promoting physical activity among adolescents in the general population in order to reduce the likelihood of psychotic experiences emerging.

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  • Young adult mental health and functional outcomes among individuals with remitted, persistent and late-onset ADHD: Findings from an 18-year prospective cohort of Twins

    Jessica Agnew-Blais, 2018

    Prior research has identified a link between ADHD and adverse social and psychological functioning. Yet questions remained about how the course of ADHD from childhood to young adulthood, namely whether ADHD remits, persists or had late-onset after childhood, affects one’s functioning. This study examined this question further and found that those with remitted ADHD display poorer physical and socioeconomic health outcomes in young adulthood compared to those who have never had ADHD. Yet, this remitted group didn’t differ from those who had never had ADHD on most mental health, substance use and psychosocial functioning outcomes at age 18. Those with ADHD in young adulthood (the late-onset and persistent ADHD groups) displayed adverse outcomes across assessed domains (mental health, substance misuse, psychosocial, physical health and socioeconomic outcomes). Therefore, the study concludes that childhood ADHD appears to have a long-term effect on some adult outcomes, such as educational attainment, that may be more cumulative in nature, whereas current ADHD in young adulthood is associated with a wider range of functional outcomes. Thus, early intervention may be especially important for certain domains such as education. Additionally, these findings emphasize the need to identify and treat individuals with young adult ADHD from an early age.

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  • Childhood Maltreatment Predicts Poor Economic and Educational Outcomes in the Transition to Adulthood

    Sara R. Jaffee, 2018

    Recent decades have seen unemployment rates rising to a concerning level, in turn making adolescents’ transition into labour hood increasingly challenging. This study focused on childhood maltreatment as a pivotal predictor of poor educational and employment outcomes amongst young adults. The findings highlighted an association between the two variables, whereby poor educational and economic outcomes doubled in likelihood if the individual had a history of childhood maltreatment. Further findings highlighted increased social support as a key preventative factor against these negative outcomes. Interventions should therefore aim to focus on child welfare and increasing individuals’ social support in order to improve future outcomes for maltreated children.

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2017

  • Annual Research Review: The persistent and pervasive impact of being bullied in childhood and adolescence: implications for policy and practice

    Louise Arseneault, 2017

    This review paper summarises findings on the impact of being bullied including mental, physical and socio economic outcomes. It looks at what bullying is and the persistent adjustment problems associated with it. Furthermore, it looks at the anti-bullying policy and interventions within schools. This paper builds and extends upon other recently published review papers by raising important questions for police and practices, questions such as ‘are we doing enough’ or ‘are we doing the right thing?’ It reviews extensive evidence that childhood bullying victimisation is an independent contributor to the development of poor outcomes to conclude that bullying should be considered another form of childhood abuse alongside neglect and physical maltreatment. This is derived from the research and agreement of studies indicating that bullying is associated with mental health problems which can persist up to midlife and impact physical and socioeconomic outcomes. Public health interventions should aim to stop children becoming targets of bullying from an early age and appropriate support should be given to the victims in order to build resilience.

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  • Protective Factors for Psychotic Symptoms Among Poly-victimized Children

    Eloise Crush, 2017

    It has been repeatedly shown that children exposed to victimisation are found to have psychotic symptoms emerge in later life; however most victimised children do not develop such symptoms. This study aims to investigate which individual, family-level and wider community characteristics were associated an absence of psychotic symptoms amongst children most at risk due to their exposure to poly-victimisation (more than one type of victimisation). It was found that having a relative high IQ, a more positive atmosphere at home and higher levels of neighbourhood social cohesion were protective against poly-victimisation. However poly-victimised individuals still displayed elevated levels of mental health problems such as depression and anxiety over non-victimised children suggesting there may be different protective factors for different mental health problems. The findings suggest that children’s cognitive functioning, the home environment and social cohesion in the community should all be considered as key areas for intervention efforts targeting childhood psychotic symptoms. Practically these interventions should focus upon those exposed to poly-victimization given they are much more likely to develop psychotic phenomena.

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  • The Origins of Cognitive Deficits in Victimized Children: Implications for Neuroscientists and Clinicians

    Andrea Danese, 2017

    This study aimed to test the origins of cognitive deficits often observed in adolescents and adults with previous experience of childhood violence victimisation. It is possible that childhood victimisation leads to later cognitive deficits. Alternatively, cognitive deficits may increase risk for childhood victimisation. Both the E-Risk Study and the Dunedin Study have prospectively collected information on childhood victimisation and have repeatedly measured cognitive functions throughout the life-course. These unique datasets made it possible to test the direction of this association. The results found that children exposed to victimisation indeed had pervasive impairments in clinically relevant cognitive functions such as general intelligence, executive functioning, processing speed, memory, perceptual reasoning, and verbal comprehension in adolescence and adult life. However, the use of a longitudinal design revealed that the cognitive deficits predated victimisation and were explained by pre-existing cognitive vulnerabilities and nonspecific effects of socioeconomic disadvantage. On one hand, the results strengthen the evidence for cognitive deficits in adolescents and adults with a history if childhood victimisation. On the other hand, the results challenge the conventional causal interpretation given. With regard to neuroscience, the implications of these findings caution researchers to adopt a more circumspect approach to causal inference and highlight the need for greater attention to study designs, promoting the use of longitudinal and twin designs. Lastly, in relation to clinical practice, the findings suggest that clinicians should be cautious when using simplistic case formulations for individuals with complex traumatic histories and those cognitive deficits should be conceptualised as children’s individual risk factors for victimisation as well as potential complicating features during treatment.

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  • ADHD and Sleep Quality: Longitudinal Analyses From Childhood to Early Adulthood in a Twin Cohort

    Alice M. Gregory, 2017

    Gregory looks into the association between ADHD and sleep quality in three groups; persistent ADHD (in childhood and adulthood), remitted ADHD (in childhood but not adulthood) and late-onset ADHD (at age 18 only) through home visits and interviews. Genetics and a non shared environment were found to influence both ADHD and sleep quality. Furthermore, children with ADHD have an increased risk of poor sleep quality in early adulthood, but only if their ADHD persists. If ADHD remits over time, individuals are no more likely than those who had never had an ADHD diagnosis to have poorer sleep quality in young adulthood. Previous research suggests improving sleep may have a positive impact upon ADHD. Underlying brain vulnerability may be driving the association between ADHD and sleep difficulties but the use of illicit substances may also play a role in the development of ADHD and sleep problems.

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  • Buffering effects of safe, supportive, and nurturing relationships among women with childhood histories of maltreatment

    Sara R. Jaffee, 2017

    This article tested whether safe, supportive, and nurturing relationships buffer women with a history of childhood maltreatment from poor health outcomes in later life. It was found that women who had a childhood history of maltreatment were at elevated risk for poor mental, physical, and behavioural health problems in adulthood but those who were characterized by safe, supportive, and nurturing relationships were buffered from the adverse effects with respect to depression, general health, sleep problems, and antisocial behaviour. The findings of this study suggest for women experiencing mental and physical health problems, standard pharmacological treatments could be extended to include couples therapy to improve communication and warmth with a partner reducing the transmission of abuse.

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  • Cumulative Effects of Neighborhood Social Adversity and Personal Crime Victimization on Adolescent Psychotic Experiences

    Joanne Newbury, 2017

    Up to 1 in 3 adolescents in the general population at some point experience subclinical psychotic phenomena such as extreme paranoia and hearing voices that others cannot. These early psychotic experiences are associated with a greater adulthood risk for psychotic disorders and other psychiatric problems including substance abuse, depression, and suicidal behaviour. Little is known about the potential impact of macro-level structural features such as urbanicity and neighbourhood-level social processes on early psychotic phenomena, with prior research focusing on individual-level risk factors. This study by Newbury (2017) found that adolescents raised in urban neighbourhoods were significantly more likely to have psychotic experiences than those raised in rural areas. It was also found that personal victimization by violent crime during upbringing together with adverse neighbourhood social conditions such as low social cohesion and high neighbourhood disorder partly explained why adolescents in urban settings are more likely to report psychotic experiences. With this in mind, early interventions to prevent psychosis should be targeted towards victimized youth living in urban and socially adverse neighbourhoods.

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  • In the eye of the beholder: Perceptions of neighborhood adversity and psychotic experiences in adolescence

    Joanne Newbury, 2017

    Up to one third of youths report subclinical psychotic experiences and evidence suggests that urban and adverse neighbourhood conditions are associated with these early symptoms. With 70% of the world’s population predicted to live in cities by 2050, this association is increasingly important to understand. However, very little is currently known about the role of personal perceptions of neighbourhood conditions in the emergence of early psychotic phenomena. Newbury looked at adolescents’ personal perceptions of disorder (i.e., physical and social signs of threat) in their neighbourhood, and found that adolescents who perceived higher levels of disorder were over 60% more likely to report psychotic experiences at age 18 compared to those who perceived their neighbourhoods to be safer. This association was not confounded by numerous potential neighbourhood-, family-, and individual-level factors. In addition, quantitative genetic analyses showed that the association between perceived neighbourhood disorder and adolescent psychotic experiences was attributable to overlapping environmental influences. The findings highlight potential opportunities for preventative interventions in psychosis for adolescents living in adverse neighbourhoods. For example, clinicians could explore the perceptions that young people have of their neighbourhoods. In addition, public health initiatives should aim to increase supportiveness and safety in urban communities to improve the mental health trajectories for urban populations.

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  • Measuring childhood maltreatment to predict early-adult psychopathology: Comparison of prospective informant-reports and retrospective self-reports

    Joanne Newbury, 2017

    This study compared two common ways of measuring childhood maltreatment 1) prospective reports obtained during childhood, and 2) retrospective reports obtained in adulthood. The aim was to compare both methods for their ability to measure maltreatment and predict subsequent psychopathology. The prospective measure included a combination of reports from caregivers, researchers and clinicians up until the age of 12. The retrospective measure was obtained through private interviews with the participants themselves at age 18 using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The study found that similar rates of childhood maltreatment were obtained by prospective and retrospective reports, though there was little overlap between the groups. Regardless of how maltreatment was measured, maltreated participants were significantly more likely to have psychiatric problems in early adulthood, such as depression, anxiety, and substance problems. However, associations were often stronger when maltreatment was retrospectively self-reported. The findings suggest that young adults who remember being maltreated have a particularly elevated risk for psychopathology. Retrospective self-reports of childhood maltreatment are an increasingly practical risk marker of mental health problems in adulthood.

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  • Sleeping with one eye open: loneliness and sleep quality in young adults

    Timothy Matthews, 2017

    Is there an association between loneliness and sleep quality and does victimization constitute a pre-existing vulnerability? This is the question Matthews looks to answer through the use of self reported data and interviewer’s ratings. It was found that individuals who were lonelier reported worse overall sleep quality. Covariates such as social isolation, being a parent and depression were all linked with sleep quality however none fully explained the association. Physiological processes such as stress arousal may play a role. The findings of this study emphasise the importance of early interventions, especially in victimized individuals, to reduce loneliness and in turn reduce physical health issues. Furthermore emphasise the need to consider not only individuals’ current social circumstances, but also influences of past experiences including violence victimization.

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  • Postpartum depression mediates the intergenerational transmission of childhood maltreatment and psychological sequelae in a longitudinal birth cohort

    Karmel Choi, 2017

    ‘Intergenerational transmission of childhood maltreatment’ is the process by which exposure to maltreatment during childhood years repeats itself across generations. This study focused on maternal post-partum depression as a mediating factor for this maltreatment, and examined the subsequent psychological outcomes faced by the offspring as a result. The findings presented a notable association, whereby post-partum depression doubled the likelihood of the parent undergoing such abuse to their offspring; a finding which was consistent within all socioeconomic backgrounds. Furthermore, the findings highlighted emotional neglect as the most common maltreatment subtype experienced by mothers, which further predicted post-partum depression. Yet, the multifactorial nature of intergenerational transmission was highlighted by the prediction of child outcomes from childhood maltreatment extending beyond the maternal depression pathway. Interventions that identify and treat post-partum depression may thus act as prevention to the abuse and in turn interrupt its transmission and sequalae.

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  • Child vs Adult Onset of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder—Reply

    Louise Arseneault, 2017

    This letter is a response to a reply written by Solanto (2017) about Agnew-Blais (2016) paper “Evaluation of the Persistence, Remission, and Emergence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Young Adulthood”. Solanto suggested the E-Risk study has a higher inclusion rate (32.5%) of adults with persistent ADHD (onset in childhood) over those in other countries (10% New Zealand and 12.6% Brazil) due to the diagnostic DSM-IV criteria recognising and including both subtypes for inattention and hyperactivity. Solanto believed that excluding predominantly inattentive cases would significantly reduce occurrence of childhood ADHD among adults. Arseneault et al., (2017) responds that the inclusion of subtypes did not matter as there was not an excess of inattentive vs hyperactive/impulsive symptoms in childhood among individuals with late-onset ADHD found and therefore, would not impact the inclusion rate significantly.

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2016

  • Evaluation of the Persistence, Remission, and Emergence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Young Adulthood

    Jessica C. Agnew-Blais, 2016

    This study looked into the childhood risk factors for ADHD and the functioning of young adults with persistent, remitted, and late-onset ADHD. It has been a belief that ADHD is a childhood disorder yet 50% of individuals with ADHD are found to carry it onto young adulthood. This study found that persistent ADHD was associated with more severe childhood ADHD with symptoms across childhood being the most significant predictor. Furthermore these individuals had lower IQ, more functional impairment and higher rates or generalised anxiety, conduct disorders and marijuana disorders. Family environment characteristics did not vary yet persistent ADHD individuals had higher maternal warmth and less maternal depression. Late-onset ADHD individuals had higher IQ at age 18 yet higher rates of alcohol dependence and no different in life satisfaction than the persistent group. The findings of this study highlight the importance of taking a developmental approach to understanding ADHD and should not preclude adults with ADHD and no previous diagnosis in childhood from receiving clinical attention.

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  • Childhood Bullying Victimization and Overweight in Young Adulthood: A Cohort Study

    Jessie R. Baldwin, 2016

    This study by Baldwin (2016) tested whether experiencing bullying victimisation in childhood is associated with being overweight in young adulthood. Specifically, the study tested whether this association is: (1) consistent with a dose-response relationship, (2) consistent across different measures of overweight, (3) specific to bullying and not explained by the effects of co-occurring childhood maltreatment, (4) independent of key potential confounders, and (5) consistent with the temporal sequence of bullying preceding overweight. The findings showed that childhood bullying victimisation predicted overweight at age 18, with chronically bullied children showing the highest risk of being overweight. This association generalised to measures of BMI and waist-hip ratio, and was not explained by co-occurring maltreatment or potential confounders including socioeconomic disadvantage, food insecurity, childhood mental health problems, low cognitive ability, and early pubertal development. Furthermore, bullied children were not overweight at the time of victimization, and became overweight independent of pre-existing genetic and fetal liability. The study highlights the importance of investing in anti-bullying interventions and suggests that efforts should be made to support bullied children to prevent them from becoming overweight.

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  • Committed to work but vulnerable: self-perceptions and mental health in NEET 18-year olds from a contemporary British cohort

    Sidra Goldman-Mellor, 2016

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  • Life Span Studies of ADHD—Conceptual Challenges and Predictors of Persistence and Outcome

    Arthur Caye, 2016

    ADHD prevalence has been shown to be around 5 to 7.1% in children and 2.5 to 5% in adults with a previous meta-analysis suggesting only 15% of diagnosed children carrying it on to adulthood. This narrative review that cites E-Risk data looks to increase our understanding of conceptual and methodological issues that come with studying ADHD, data on persistent rates and its predictors and new adult-onset cases. It was found that ADHD severity, co-morbid conduct disorder and major depressive disorder, and treatment for ADHD are the main predictors of ADHD persistence from childhood to adulthood. Furthermore, co-morbid conduct disorder and ADHD severity in childhood are the most important predictors of adverse outcomes in adulthood among children with ADHD.

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  • Social isolation, loneliness and depression in young adulthood: a behavioural genetic analysis

    Timothy Matthews, 2016

    This study investigated the association between social isolation and loneliness, how they relate to depression, and whether these associations are explained by genetic influences. The results found that young adults who were socially isolated experienced greater feelings of loneliness, and were also more likely to struggle with depression. Social isolation and loneliness were both associated however loneliness was more robustly associated with depression than reports of social isolation. Furthermore, a strong genetic overlap was found between isolation, loneliness and depression and a heritability estimate in line with those found in previous studies. Interventions to decrease feelings of loneliness can be important to reduce depressive symptoms but, given that loneliness can be experienced even without social isolation, simply increasing individuals’ amount of social contact may be insufficient for improving outcomes. Interventions that address negative social cognition show greater promise as a strategy to reduce loneliness, compared to interventions focused on increasing social contact or support.

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  • Why are Children in Urban Neighborhoods at Increased Risk for Psychotic Symptoms? Findings From a UK Longitudinal Cohort Study

    Joanne Newbury, 2016

    This paper by Newbury (2016) is the first to investigate whether specific psychosocial features of the urban environment increase children’s risk for psychotic symptoms. It was found that children living in urban neighbourhoods were ~80% more likely to experience psychotic symptoms at age 12 compared to children living in nonurban neighbourhoods. Furthermore, it was found that psychotic symptoms were more common among children living in neighbourhoods characterised by low social cohesion, low social control, high neighbourhood disorder, and where the family had been directly victimised by a crime. Low social cohesion together with crime victimisation explained nearly a quarter of the association between urbanicity and childhood psychotic symptoms. With populations becoming increasingly urban, and child and adolescent psychopathology becoming a growing proportion of the global burden of disease, the findings from this study highlight the need to identify the social, psychological, and biological pathways leading from neighbourhood-level exposures to childhood psychotic symptoms.

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  • Parental monitoring and knowledge: Testing bidirectional associations with youths’ antisocial behavior

    Jasmin Wertz, 2016

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  • Etiology of Pervasive Versus Situational Antisocial Behaviors: A Multi-Informant Longitudinal Cohort Study

    Jasmin Wertz, 2016

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2015

  • Measuring adolescents’ exposure to victimization: The Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study

    Helen L. Fisher, 2015

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  • Methylomic analysis of monozygotic twins discordant for childhood psychotic symptoms

    Helen L. Fisher, 2015

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  • Social Isolation and Mental Health at Primary and Secondary School Entry: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    Timothy Matthews, 2015

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  • Methylomic markers of persistent childhood asthma: a longitudinal study of asthma-discordant monozygotic twins

    Therese M. Murphy, 2015

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  • Living alongside more affluent neighbors predicts greater involvement in antisocial behavior among low-income boys

    Candice L. Odgers, 2015

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  • Intimate partner violence and new-onset depression: A longitudinal study of women's childhood and adult histories of abuse

    Isabelle Ouellet-Morin, 2015

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  • Why some children with externalising problems develop internalising symptoms: testing two pathways in a genetically sensitive cohort study

    Jasmin Wertz, 2015

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2014

  • Leptin deficiency in maltreated children

    A Danese, 2014

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  • Is childhood cruelty to animals a marker for physical maltreatment in a prospective cohort study of children?

    Fiona S. McEwena, 2014

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2013

  • Chronic bullying victimization across school transitions: The role of genetic and environmental influences

    Lucy Bowes, 2013

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  • Safe, Stable, Nurturing Relationships Break the Intergenerational Cycle of Abuse: A Prospective Nationally Representative Cohort of Children in the United Kingdom

    Sara R. Jaffee, 2013

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  • Childhood exposure to violence and lifelong health: Clinical intervention science and stress-biology research join forces

    Terrie E. Moffitt, 2013

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  • Increased serotonin transporter gene (SERT) DNA methylation is associated with bullying victimization and blunted cortisol response to stress in childhood: a longitudinal study of discordant monozygotic twins

    I. Ouellet-Morin, 2013

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  • Exposure to violence during childhood is associated with telomere erosion from 5 to 10 years of age: a longitudinal study

    I Shalev, 2013

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2012

  • Etiological features of borderline personality related characteristics in a birth cohort of 12-year-old children

    Daniel W. Belsky, 2012

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  • Bullying victimisation and risk of self harm in early adolescence: longitudinal cohort study

    Helen L Fisher, 2012

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  • Maternal Insomnia and Children’s Family Socialization Environments

    Alice M. Gregory, 2012

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  • Supportive parenting mediates widening neighborhood socioeconomic disparities in children’s antisocial behavior from ages 5 to 12

    Candice L. Odgers, 2012

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  • A prospective longitudinal study of children’s theory of mind and adolescent involvement in bullying

    Sania Shakoor, 2012

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2010

  • Bullying victimization in youths and mental health problems: ‘Much ado about nothing’?

    L. Arseneault, 2010

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  • Context and Sequelae of Food Insecurity in Children’s Development

    Daniel W. Belsky, 2010

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  • Families promote emotional and behavioural resilience to bullying: evidence of an environmental effect

    Lucy Bowes, 2010

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  • The Challenging Pupil in the Classroom: The Effect of the Child on the Teacher

    Renate M. Houts, 2010

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  • Etiological and Clinical Features of Childhood Psychotic Symptoms

    Guilherme Polanczyk, 2010

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  • Implications of Extending the ADHD Age-of-Onset Criterion to Age 12: Results from a Prospectively Studied Birth Cohort

    Guilherme Polanczyk, 2010

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  • Serotonin Transporter Gene Moderates the Development of Emotional Problems Among Children Following Bullying Victimization

    Karen Sugden, 2010

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  • A longitudinal study of epigenetic variation in twins

    Chloe Chung Yi Wong, 2010

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2009

  • School, Neighborhood, and Family Factors Are Associated With Children’s Bullying Involvement: A Nationally Representative Longitudinal Study

    Lucy Bowes, 2009

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  • Five-year predictive validity of DSM-IV conduct disorder research diagnosis in 4½–5-year-old children

    Julia Kim-Cohen, 2009

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  • Mental Health Context of Food Insecurity: a Representative Cohort of Families With Young Children

    Maria Melchior, 2009

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  • The Protective Effects of Neighborhood Collective Efficacy on British Children Growing Up in Deprivation: A Developmental Analysis

    Candice L. Odgers, 2009

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  • Protective Effect of CRHR1 Gene Variants on the Development of Adult Depression Following Childhood Maltreatment

    Guilherme Polanczyk, 2009

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2008

  • Being Bullied as an Environmentally Mediated Contributing Factor to Children’s Internalizing Problems

    L. Arseneault, 2008

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  • Genetic and environmental influences on victims, bullies and bully-victims in childhood

    Harriet A. Ball, 2008

    This article investigates the genetic and environmental influences on children’s involvement in bullying as victims or perpetrators of bullying and also on the co-occurrence between being and victim and a bully (i.e. bully/victims). Compared to girls, boys were significantly more likely to bully others. The correlation between bullying victimisation and perpetration was moderate (r.25). The findings indicated that genetic factors accounted for 73% of the variation in bullying victimisation and 61% of the variation in bullying perpetration, with the remaining variation explained by environmental factors not shared by twins. Furthermore, genetic factors explained all the co-variation between being a victim of bullying and a perpetrator. These findings suggest that interventions should focus on victims, and not only just on children who bully others, because there are factors other than ‘bad luck’ that are involved in bullying victimisation.

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  • A Replicated Molecular Genetic Basis for Subtyping Antisocial Behavior in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Avshalom Caspi, 2008

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  • Unintentional Injuries in a Twin Study of Preschool Children: Environmental, Not Genetic, Risk Factors

    Juan R. Ordoñana, 2008

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2007

  • Moderation of breastfeeding effects on the IQ by genetic variation in fatty acid metabolism

    Avshalom Caspi, 2007

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  • Individual, family, and neighborhood factors distinguish resilient from non-resilient maltreated children: A cumulative stressors model

    Sara R. Jaffee, 2007

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  • Birthweight Predicts IQ: Fact or Artefact?

    Rhiannon Newcombe, 2007

    This paper uses two birth cohorts, the Environmental-Risk Longitudinal (E-Risk) study and the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. It reports that low birthweight is a notable factor in having a lower IQ. The E-Risk twin design showed that the twin with lower birthweight also had lower IQ, compared to the co-twin. This ruled out environmental and genetic differences between the twins and isolated birthweight’s influence on IQ. The findings of the study were similar to that of the Dunedin study of singletons, who were also more likely to have compromised neurological health if they had a low birthweight. The article attests to the findings that children with lower birth rate go on to have a lower cognitive function in adulthood, not only in cases of severely underweight infants but also in children born at the lower end of normal birthweight. The main implication of this study is that it confirms the usefulness of genetically sensitive research designs in studying the effects of prenatal environment.

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2006

  • Bullying Victimization Uniquely Contributes to Adjustment Problems in Young Children: A Nationally Representative Cohort Study

    Louise Arseneault, 2006

    This study responds to the debate about being bullied in childhood causing adjustment problems in contrast to the view that bullying victimization is a continuation of pre-existing mental health problems. This author investigated the contribution of being bullied for the development of adjustment difficulties including internalising and externalising problems, unhappiness at school and prosocial behaviours amongst 7-year olds, taking into account for these forms of adjustment prior to the experience of being bullied, at age 5. The study distinguished the impact on pure victims (children who are solely victims of bullying) and bully/victims (those who are both victims of and perpetrators of bullying). The findings indicated that whilst pure victims experience more internalizing problems compared to non-victimized 7-year olds, bully/victims experience the highest levels of internalizing and externalizing problems. The study concluded that being the victim of bullying during the first years of school can have a detrimental effect on children’s adjustments. Findings suggest that intervention programmes should offer support and social training for victims and include intense multicomponent support to children who are bully/victims.

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  • The Caregiving Environments Provided to Children by Depressed Mothers With or Without an Antisocial History

    Julia Kim-Cohen, 2006

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  • MAOA, maltreatment, and gene–environment interaction predicting children’s mental health: new evidence and a meta-analysis

    Julia Kim-Cohen, 2006

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  • Genetic Influences on the Overlap Between Low IQ and Antisocial Behavior in Young Children

    Karestan C. Koenen, 2006

    This article looks at the genetic influences of low IQ and antisocial behaviour and how early-onset antisocial behaviour is a strong risk factor for multiple adjustment problems in later life. Furthermore, it explores the correlations between adjustment problems and the influence low IQ has on antisocial behaviour through early deficits in self-regulation capacities. It was found that IQ tested at age 5 years significantly correlated with antisocial behaviour at both 5 and 7 years. The magnitude of influence for both tests displayed a difference in results for gender, due to a shared genetic etiology boys predicted higher antisocial behaviour at both ages than girls. The study concluded that male children with lower IQ and higher levels of early antisocial behaviour were at more risk for becoming life-course persistent antisocial individuals. The study suggests the families of these type of children should be targeted for early intervention.

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  • Prediction of Heterogeneity in Intelligence and Adult Prognosis by Genetic Polymorphisms in the Dopamine System Among Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Jonathan Mill, 2006

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  • Evidence for Monozygotic Twin (MZ) Discordance in Methylation Level at Two CpG Sites in the Promoter Region of the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Gene

    Jonathan Mill, 2006

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  • Revisiting the Association Between Reading Achievement and Antisocial Behavior: New Evidence of an Environmental Explanation From a Twin Study

    Kali H. Trzesniewski, 2006

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2005

  • Origins of Individual Differences in Theory of Mind: From Nature to Nurture?

    Claire Hughes, 2005

    This article looks at the genetic and environmental influences on individual differences when testing theory of mind through the study of 60 month old twins. Furthermore, it explores a possible overlap between individual difference influences on verbal ability and theory of mind. A shared environment was found to have the biggest influence on individual differences with genetics having no influence. In addition, a strong correlation between theory of mind and verbal ability was largely accounted for by genetic and shared environmental factors. The magnitude of influence for both tests was similar despite gender. Lastly, if acquiring a theory of mind is fundamentally important for children’s social adjustment then these findings carry clear practical implications for intervention programs that aim to reduce the negative impact of adverse environments on young children.

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  • Psychometric Evaluation of 5- and 7-Year-Old Children’s Self-Reports of Conduct Problems

    Louise Arseneault, 2005

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  • Nature vs nurture: Genetic vulnerabilities interact with physical maltreatment to promote conduct problems

    Sara R. Jaffee, 2005

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  • Maternal Depression and Children’s Antisocial Behavior

    Julia Kim-Cohen, 2005

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  • Validity of DSM-IV Conduct Disorder in 4½–5-Year-Old Children: A Longitudinal Epidemiological Study

    Julia Kim-Cohen, 2005

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2004

  • What Effect Does Classroom Separation Have on Twins’ Behaviour, Progress at School, and Reading Abilities?

    Lucy Tully, 2004

    This article looks at the genetic and environmental influences on individual differences when testing theory of mind through the study of 60 month old twins. Furthermore, it explores a possible overlap between individual difference influences on verbal ability and theory of mind. A shared environment was found to have the biggest influence on individual differences with genetics having no influence. In addition, a strong correlation between theory of mind and verbal ability was largely accounted for by genetic and shared environmental factors. The magnitude of influences for both tests was similar despite gender. Future research should look into a variety of individual difference measures into lexical, syntactic, and pragmatic abilities and into frequency, content and form of parent-child conversations to explain SES-related contrasts and aid in intervention programs.

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  • Maternal Expressed Emotion Predicts Children’s Antisocial Behavior Problems: Using Monozygotic-Twin Differences to Identify Environmental Effects on Behavioral Development

    Avshalom Caspi, 2004

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  • Physical Maltreatment Victim to Antisocial Child: Evidence of an Environmentally Mediated Process

    Sara R. Jaffee, 2004

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  • The Limits of Child Effects: Evidence for Genetically Mediated Child Effects on Corporal Punishment but Not on Physical Maltreatment

    Sara R. Jaffee, 2004

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  • Genetic and Environmental Processes in Young Children's Resilience and Vulnerability to Socioeconomic Deprivation

    Julia Kim-Cohen, 2004

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  • Co-Occurrence of ADHD and Low IQ Has Genetic Origins

    J. Kuntsi, 2004

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  • Prenatal Smoking and Early ChildhoodConduct Problems

    Barbara Maughan, 2004

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  • Sex Differences in Developmental Reading Disability

    Michael Rutter, 2004

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  • The Consequences of Selective Participation on Behavioral-Genetic Findings: Evidence from Simulated and Real Data

    Alan Taylor, 2004

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  • Does Maternal Warmth Moderate the Effects of Birth Weight on Twins’ Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms and Low IQ?

    Lucy A. Tully, 2004

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2003

  • Strong genetic effects on cross-situational antisocial behaviour among 5-year-old children according to mothers, teachers, examiner-observers, and twins self-reports

    Louise Arseneault, 2003

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  • Life With (or Without) Father: The Benefits of Living With Two Biological Parents Depend on the Father's Antisocial Behavior

    Sara R. Jaffee, 2003

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  • Domestic violence is associated with environmental suppression of IQ in young children

    Karestan C. Koenen, 2003

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  • Maternal adjustment, parenting and child behaviour in families of school-aged twins conceived after IVF and ovulation induction

    Lucy A. Tully, 2003

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2002

  • ‘I’m gonna beat you!’ SNAP!: an observational paradigm for assessing young children’s disruptive behaviour in competitive play

    Claire Hughes, 2002

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  • Influence of Adult Domestic Violence on Children’s Internalizing and Externalizing Problems: An Environmentally Informative Twin Study

    Sara R. Jaffee, 2002

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  • Teen-aged mothers in contemporary Britain

    Terrie E. Moffitt, 2002

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2001

  • Can Women Provide Reliable Information about Their Children's Fathers? Cross-informant Agreement about Men's Lifetime Antisocial Behaviour

    Avshalom Caspi, 2001

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