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2021

  • Polygenic risk and the course of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder from childhood to young adulthood: Findings from a nationally-representative cohort

    Jessica C. Agnew-Blais, 2021

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have begun to uncover the molecular basis of genetic risk for the disorder. In this study we look to understand whether a genetic risk for ADHD is associated with the course of the disorder across childhood and into young adulthood.

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  • Taxonomy of psychopathology: a work in progress and a call for interdisciplinary research

    Louise Arseneault, 2021

    Taxonomy is an essential element in the process of understanding and organizing concepts that form part of any scientific discipline. For mental health disciplines, including psychiatry and psychology, the process of classification is challenging because of issues related to both the conceptualization and the measurement of psychopathology. Some other scientific disciplines work with clearly defined sets of criteria to identify and categorize the phenomena they study. Mental health problems bring complex issues related to symptom presentation and comorbidity that have yet to be agreed on.

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  • Population vs Individual Prediction of Poor Health From Results of Adverse Childhood Experiences Screening

    Jessie R. Baldwin, 2021

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are well-established risk factors for health problems in a population. However, it is not known whether screening for ACEs can accurately identify individuals who develop later health problems. This study suggests that, although ACE scores can forecast mean group differences in health, they have poor accuracy in predicting an individual’s risk of later health problems.

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  • Identifying adolescents at risk for major depressive disorder: Performance of a composite risk score in cohorts based in three 3 different continents

    Thiago Botter-Maio Rocha, 2021

    An adolescent depression risk score comprising easily obtainable predictors was developed with good prognostic performance in a Brazilian sample. Data from the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort were used to develop the prediction model, and its generalizability was evaluated in two representative cohort studies: the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study and the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study.

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  • Investigating the genetic architecture of noncognitive skills using GWAS-by-subtraction

    Perline A. Demange, 2021

    Little is known about the genetic architecture of traits affecting educational attainment other than cognitive ability. We used genomic structural equation modelling and prior genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of educational attainment and cognitive test performance to estimate SNP associations with educational attainment variation that is independent of cognitive ability. We identified 157 genome-wide-significant loci and a polygenic architecture accounting for 57% of genetic variance in educational attainment.

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  • Bullying behaviours and other conduct problems: longitudinal investigation of their independent associations with risk factors and later outcomes

    Keertana Ganesan, 2021

    Bullying behaviours and other conduct problems often co-occur. However, it is not yet known whether bullying behaviours are associated with early factors and later poor outcomes independently of conduct problems. While there are difering, specific interventions for bullying behaviours and for conduct problems, it is unclear if such specifcity is justifed given parallels between both behaviours.

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  • Assessing the co-variability of DNA methylation across peripheral cells and tissues: Implications for the interpretation of findings in epigenetic epidemiology

    Eilis Hannon, 2021

    As epigenetic variation is cell-type specific, an ongoing challenge in epigenetic epidemiology is how to interpret studies performed using bulk tissue (for example, whole blood) which comprises a mix of different cell types. In this study, we identify major differences in DNA methylation (DNAm) across multiple peripheral tissues and different blood cell types, with each sample type being characterized by a unique signature across multiple genomic loci.

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  • Childhood exposure to ambient air pollution and predicting individual risk of depression onset in UK adolescents

    Rachel M. Latham, 2021

    A multivariable model to predict adolescents’ individual risk of future MDD has recently been developed however its performance in a UK sample was far from perfect. Given the potential role of air pollution in the aetiology of depression, we investigate whether including childhood exposure to air pollution as an additional predictor in the risk prediction model improves the identification of UK adolescents who are at greatest risk for developing MDD.

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  • Unravelling the contribution of complex trauma to psychopathology and cognitive deficits: a cohort study

    Stephanie J. Lewis, 2021

    Complex traumas are hypothesised to cause more severe psychopathology and poorer cognitive function than other non-complex traumas. However, empirical testing has been limited to clinical/convenience samples and cross-sectional designs. Here we investigate psychopathology and cognitive function in young people exposed to complex, non-complex or no trauma, from a population-representative longitudinal cohort, also considering the role of pre-existing vulnerabilities.

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  • This is what loneliness looks like: A mixed-methods study of loneliness in adolescence and young adulthood

    Timothy Matthews, 2021

    In this study we used quantitative and qualitative methods to explore how lonely young people are seen from others’ perspectives, in terms of their personality, behavior, and life circumstances. The findings add depth to the current conceptualization of loneliness and emphasize the complexity and intersectional nature of the circumstances severely lonely young adults live in.

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  • Association of Air Pollution Exposure in Childhood and Adolescence With Psychopathology at the Transition to Adulthood

    Aaron Reuben, 2021

    Air pollution (nitrogen oxides and particulate matter) exposure are known to damage the brain, but its associations with the development of psychopathology are not fully characterized. In this study, we assess whether air pollution exposure in childhood and adolescence is associated with greater psychopathology at 18 years of age.

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  • DNA methylation signatures of aggression and closely related constructs: A meta-analysis of epigenome-wide studies across the lifespan

    Jenny van Dongen, 2021

    DNA methylation profiles of aggressive behaviour may capture lifetime cumulative effects of genetic, stochastic, and environmental influences associated with aggression. Here, we report the first large meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) of aggressive behaviour.

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2020

  • Quantification of the pace of biological aging in humans through a blood test, the DunedinPoAm DNA methylation algorithm

    Daniel W. Belsky, 2020

    Biological aging is the gradual, progressive decline in system integrity that occurs with advancing chronological age, causing morbidity and disability. Measurements of the pace of aging are needed as surrogate endpoints in trials of therapies designed to prevent disease by slowing biological aging. We report a blood-DNA-methylation measure that is sensitive to variation in pace of biological aging among individuals born the same year.

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  • DNA methylation signatures of adolescent victimization: analysis of a longitudinal monozygotic twin sample

    Radhika Kandaswamy, 2020

    Accumulating evidence suggests that individuals exposed to victimization at key developmental stages may have different epigenetic fingerprints compared to those exposed to no/minimal stressful events, however results are inconclusive. This study aimed to strengthen causal inference regarding the impact of adolescent victimization on the epigenome by controlling for genetic variation, age, gender, and shared environmental exposures.

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  • Childhood maltreatment and poor functional outcomes at the transition to adulthood: a comparison of prospective informant and retrospective self-reports of maltreatment

    Rachel M. Latham, 2020

    Growing evidence suggests that prospective informant-reports and retrospective self-reports of childhood maltreatment may be diferentially associated with adult psychopathology. However, it remains unknown how associations for these two maltreatment reporting types compare when considering functional outcomes. This study compared associations between childhood maltreatment and functional outcomes at age 18 years using these two methods.

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  • A longitudinal twin study of victimisation and loneliness from childhood to young adulthood

    Timothy Matthews, 2020

    This study used a longitudinal and discordant twin design to explore in depth the developmental associations between victimization and loneliness from mid-childhood to young adulthood. Diverse forms of victimization were considered, differing across context, perpetrator, and timing of exposure. The results indicated that exposure to different forms of victimization was associated with loneliness in a dose–response manner.

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  • Developing an individualised risk calculator for psychopathology among young people victimized during childhood: A population-representative cohort study

    Alan J. Meehan, 2020

    Victimized children are at greater risk for psychopathology than non-victimized peers. However, not all victimized children develop psychiatric disorders, and accurately identifying which victimized children are at greatest risk for psychopathology is important to provide targeted interventions. This study sought to develop and internally validate individualized risk prediction models for psychopathology among victimized children.

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  • Does contact with the justice system deter or promote future delinquency? Results from a longitudinal study of British adolescent twins

    Ryan T. Motz, 2020

    What impact does formal punishment have on antisocial conduct — does it deter or promote it? The findings from a long line of research on the labeling tradition indicate formal punishments have the opposite-of-intended consequence of promoting future misbehavior. In another body of work, the results show support for deterrence-based hypotheses that punishment deters future misbehavior. So, which is it?

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  • Externalizing the threat from within: A new direction for researching associations between suicide and psychotic experiences

    Jamie Murphy, 2020

    A recent suicidal drive hypothesis posits that psychotic experiences (PEs) may serve to externalize internally generated and self-directed threat (i.e., self-injurious/suicidal behaviour [SIB]) in order to optimize survival; however, it must first be demonstrated that such internal threat can both precede and inform PEs. This study conducted the first known bidirectional analysis of SIB and PEs to test whether SIB could be considered as a plausible antecedent for PEs.

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  • Association between genetic and socioenvironmental risk for schizophrenia during upbringing in a UK longitudinal cohort

    Joanne B. Newbury, 2020

    Associations of socioenvironmental features like urbanicity and neighborhood deprivation with psychosis are well-established. An enduring question, however, is whether these associations are causal. Genetic confounding could occur due to downward mobility of individuals at high genetic risk for psychiatric problems into disadvantaged environments.

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  • Association of Adverse Experiences and Exposure to Violence in Childhood and Adolescence With Inflammatory Burden in Young People

    Line J.H. Rasmussen, 2020

    This study assesses whether exposure to adverse experiences, stress, and violence is associated with an increase in suPAR levels in young people. We test the hypothesis that measuring suPAR in addition to CRP or IL-6 levels improves the assessment of the inflammatory burden associated with early-life stress.

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  • Association of neighborhood disadvantage in childhood with DNA methylation in young adulthood

    Aaron Reuben, 2020

    This study looks to ascertain whether childhood neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with differences in DNA methylation by age 18 years. We found children raised in more socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods appeared to enter young adulthood epigenetically distinct from their less disadvantaged peers. This finding suggests that epigenetic regulation may be a mechanism by which the childhood neighborhood environment alters adult health.

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  • A polygenic score for age-at-first-birth predicts disinhibition

    Leah S. Richmond-Rakerd, 2020

    A recent genome‐wide association study identified molecular‐genetic associations with age‐at‐first‐birth. However, the meaning of these genetic discoveries is unclear. Drawing on evidence linking early pregnancy with disinhibitory behavior, we tested the hypothesis that genetic discoveries for age‐at‐first‐birth predict disinhibition.

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  • Adolescents' perceptions of family social status correlate with health and life chances: A twin-difference longitudinal cohort study

    Joshua Rivenbark, 2020

    Children from lower-income households are at increased risk for poor health, educational failure, and behavioral problems. This social gradient is one of the most reproduced findings in health and social science. How people view their position in social hierarchies also signals poor health. However, when adolescents’ views of their social position begin to independently relate to well-being is currently unknown. A cotwin design was leveraged to test whether adolescents with identical family backgrounds, but who viewed their family’s social status as higher than their same-aged and sex sibling, experienced better well-being in early and late adolescence.

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  • Associations between ADHD and emotional problems from childhood to young adulthood: A longitudinal genetically-sensitive study

    Adi Stern, 2020

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with emotional problems, and their cooccurrence often leads to worse outcomes. We investigated the developmental associations between ADHD and emotional problems from childhood to early adolescence and examined the genetic and environmental contributions to their developmental link. We further tested whether this developmental association remained across the transition to young adulthood.

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  • Patterns of Reliability: Assessing the Reproducibility and Integrity of DNA Methylation Measurement

    Karen Sugden, 2020

    DNA methylation plays an important role in both normal human development and risk of disease. The most utilized method of assessing DNA methylation uses BeadChips, generating an epigenome-wide ‘‘snapshot’’ of >450,000 observations (probe measurements) per assay. However, the reliability of each of these measurements is not equal, and little consideration is paid to consequences for research.

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  • Identifying psychological pathways to polyvictimization evidence from a longitudinal cohort study of twins from the United Kingdom

    Peter T. Tanksley, 2020

    This study examined the extent to which cognitive/psychological characteristics predict later polyvictimization. We employed a twin-based design that allowed us to test the social neurocriminology hypothesis that environmental factors influence brain-based characteristics and influence behaviors like victimization.

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  • Mental health and functional outcomes in young adulthood of children with psychotic symptoms: A longitudinal cohort study

    Antonella Trotta, 2020

    Childhood psychotic symptoms have been associated with various psychiatric disorders in adulthood but their role as early markers of poor outcomes during the crucial transition to adulthood is largely unknown. Therefore, we investigated associations between age-12 psychotic symptoms and a range of mental health problems and functional outcomes at age 18.

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  • Borderline Symptoms at Age 12 Signal Risk for Poor Outcomes During the Transition to Adulthood: Findings From a Genetically Sensitive Longitudinal Cohort Study

    Jasmin Wertz, 2020

    Borderline personality disorder in adolescence remains a controversial construct. In this study, we addressed concerns about the prognostic significance of adolescent borderline pathology by testing whether borderline symptoms at age 12 years predict functioning during the transition to adulthood, at age 18 years, in areas critical to life-course development.

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2019

  • Are changes in ADHD diagnosis across development reflected in differences in IQ from childhood to young adulthood? A longitudinal genetically-sensitive cohort study

    Jessica C. Agnew-Blais, 2019

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with poorer cognitive functioning. We used a developmental, genetically-sensitive approach to examine intelligence quotient (IQ) from early childhood to young adulthood among those with different ADHD courses to investigate whether changes in ADHD were reflected in differences in IQ. We also examined executive functioning in childhood and young adulthood among different ADHD courses.

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  • Adolescent Victimization and Self-Injurious Thoughts and Behaviours: A Genetically Sensitive Cohort Study

    Jessie R. Baldwin, 2019

    Victimized adolescents have an increased risk of self-injurious thoughts and behaviours. However, poor understanding of causal and noncausal mechanisms underlying this observed risk limits the development of interventions to prevent premature death in adolescents. This study tested whether pre-existing family-wide and individual vulnerabilities account for victimized adolescents’ increased risk of self-injurious thoughts and behaviours.

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  • Genetics and the geography of health, behaviour and attainment

    Daniel W. Belsky, 2019

    Young people’s life chances can be predicted by characteristics of their neighbourhood1 . Children growing up in disadvantaged neighbourhoods exhibit worse physical and mental health and suffer poorer educational and economic outcomes than children growing up in advantaged neighbourhoods. Increasing recognition that aspects of social inequalities tend, in fact, to be geographical inequalities 2–5 is stimulating research and focusing policy interest on the role of place in shaping health, behaviour and social outcomes.

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  • Maternal depression in the intergenerational transmission of childhood maltreatment and its sequelae: Testing postpartum effects in a longitudinal birth cohort

    Karmel W. Choi, 2019

    Mothers who have experienced childhood maltreatment are more likely to have children also exposed to maltreatment, a phenomenon known as intergenerational transmission. Factors in the perinatal period may contribute uniquely to this transmission, but timing effects have not been ascertained. We tested the mediating role of postpartum depression between maternal childhood maltreatment and a cascade of negative child outcomes, specifically child exposure to maltreatment, internalizing symptoms, and externalizing symptoms.

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  • Using discordant twin methods to investigate an environmentally mediated pathway between social support and the reduced likelihood of adolescent psychotic experiences

    Eloise Crush, 2019

    Social support has been shown to be associated with a reduced likelihood of developing psychotic experiences in the general population and even amongst those at high risk due to exposure to multiple forms of victimisation (poly-victimised). However, it is unclear whether this association is merely due to the confounding effects of shared environmental and genetic influences, or reverse causality. This study investigates whether social support has a unique environmentally mediated effect on adolescent psychotic experiences after accounting for familial factors, including genetic factors, and also prior psychopathology.

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  • Development of an individualised risk calculator for poor functioning in young people victimised during childhood: A longitudinal cohort study

    Rachel M. Latham, 2019

    Childhood victimization elevates the average risk of developing functional impairment in adulthood. However, not all victimized children demonstrate poor outcomes. Although research has described factors that confer vulnerability or resilience, it is unknown if this knowledge can be translated to accurately identify the most vulnerable victimized children. Here we build and internally validate a risk calculator to identify those victimized children who are most at risk of functional impairment at age 18 years.

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  • The epidemiology of trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder in a representative cohort of young people in England and Wales

    Stephanie J. Lewis, 2019

    Despite the emphasis placed on childhood trauma in psychiatry, comparatively little is known about the epidemiology of trauma and trauma-related psychopathology in young people. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the prevalence, clinical features, and risk factors associated with trauma exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adolescents.

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  • Loneliness and Neighbourhood Characteristics: A Multi-Informant, Nationally Representative Study of Young Adults

    Timothy Matthews, 2019

    In this study, we investigated associations between the characteristics of the neighbourhoods in which young adults live and their feelings of loneliness, using data from different sources. Loneliness was measured via self-reports at ages 12 and 18 years and also by interviewer ratings at age 18. Neighbourhood characteristics were assessed between the ages of 12 and 18 via government data, systematic social observations, a resident survey, and participants’ self-reports.

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  • Association of Air Pollution Exposure With Psychotic Experiences During Adolescence

    Joanne B. Newbury, 2019

    Urbanicity is a well-established risk factor for clinical (eg, schizophrenia) and subclinical (eg, hearing voices and paranoia) expressions of psychosis. To our knowledge, no studies have examined the association of air pollution with adolescent psychotic experiences, despite air pollution being a major environmental problem in cities. Here we examine the association to test whether exposure mediates the association between urban residency and adolescent psychotic experiences.

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  • Residential neighbourhood greenery and children's cognitive development

    Aaron Reuben, 2019

    Children who grow up in neighbourhoods with more green vegetation show enhanced cognitive development in specific domains over short timespans. However, it is unknown if neighbourhood greenery per se is uniquely predictive of children's overall cognitive development measured across many years. In this study, we test whether residential neighbourhood greenery uniquely predicts children's cognitive development across childhood and adolescence.

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  • Protective Factors for Early Psychotic Phenomena Among Children of Mothers With Psychosis

    Simon Riches, 2019

    Early identification of sub-clinical psychotic experiences in at-risk individuals is vital to prevent the development of psychosis, even before prodromal symptoms emerge. A widely-replicated risk factor is having a family member with psychosis. Previously, we have shown that better cognitive functioning, a stimulating family environment, and a cohesive community, are protective against psychotic experiences among children; while engaging in physical activity, social support, and a cohesive community are protective for adolescents. Here we investigate whether these factors also protect against the development of sub-clinical psychotic phenomena among children and adolescents who are at high-risk of psychosis by having a mother with psychosis.

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  • Adolescents Who Self-Harm and Commit Violent Crime: Testing Early-Life Predictors of Dual Harm in a Longitudinal Cohort Study

    Leah S. Richmond-Rakerd, 2019

    Self-harm is associated with violent offending. However, little is known about young people who engage in “dual-harm” behaviour. In this study, we investigate antecedents, clinical features, and life characteristics distinguishing dual-harming adolescents from those who self-harm only.

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  • Exploration of NO2 and PM2.5 air pollution and mental health problems using high-resolution data in London-based children from a UK longitudinal cohort study

    Susanna Roberts, 2019

    Air pollution is a worldwide environmental health issue. Increasingly, reports suggest that poor air quality may be associated with mental health problems, but these studies often use global measures and rarely focus on early development when psychopathology commonly emerges. To address this, we combined high-resolution air pollution exposure estimates and prospectively-collected phenotypic data to explore concurrent and longitudinal associations between air pollutants of major concern in urban areas and mental health problems in childhood and adolescence.

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  • Longitudinal investigation of DNA methylation changes preceding adolescent psychotic experiences

    Susanna Roberts, 2019

    Childhood psychotic experiences (PEs), such as seeing or hearing things that others do not, or extreme paranoia, are relatively common with around 1 in 20 children reporting them at age 12. Childhood PEs are often distressing and can be predictive of schizophrenia, other psychiatric disorders, and suicide attempts in adulthood, particularly if they persist during adolescence. Previous research has demonstrated that methylomic signatures in blood could be potential biomarkers of psychotic phenomena. This study explores the association between DNA methylation (DNAm) and the emergence, persistence, and remission of PEs in childhood and adolescence.

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  • Establishing a generalized polyepigenetic biomarker for tobacco smoking

    Karen Sugden, 2019

    Large-scale epigenome-wide association meta-analyses have identified multiple ‘signatures’ of smoking. Drawing on these findings, here we describe the construction of a polyepigenetic DNA methylation score that indexes smoking behaviour and that can be utilized for multiple purposes in population health research. and theory-guided research in epigenetic epidemiology.

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  • Epigenome-wide Association Study of AttentionDeficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Adults

    Jenny van Dongen, 2019

    Previous studies have reported associations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and DNA methylation in children. We report the first epigenome-wide association study meta-analysis of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, based on peripheral blood DNA methylation (Infinium HumanMethylation450K array) in three population-based adult cohorts.

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  • Using DNA From Mothers and Children to Study Parental Investment in Children’s Educational Attainment

    Jasmin Wertz, 2019

    This study tested implications of new genetic discoveries for understanding the association between parental investment and children’s educational attainment. A novel design matched genetic data from 860 British mothers and their children with home-visit measures of parenting: the E-Risk Study. Three findings emerged.

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2018

  • Young adult mental health and functional outcomes among individuals with remitted, persistent and late-onset ADHD

    Jessica C. Agnew-Blais, 2018

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with mental health problems and functional impairment across many domains. However, how the longitudinal course of ADHD affects later functioning remains unclear. Here we aim to disentangle how ADHD developmental patterns are associated with young adult functioning.

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  • Annual Research Review: The persistent and pervasive impact of being bullied in childhood and adolescence: implications for policy and practice

    Louise Arseneault, 2018

    It has been known for some time that being bullied is associated with children’s and adolescents’ adjustment difficulties and well-being. In recent years, we have come to recognise that the impact of childhood bullying victimisation on the development of mental health problems is more complex. This paper aims to review the evidence for an independent contribution of childhood bullying victimisation to the development of poor outcomes throughout the life span, including mental, physical and socioeconomic outcomes, and discuss the implications for policy and practice.

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  • Childhood victimization and inflammation in young adulthood: A genetically sensitive cohort study

    Jessie R. Baldwin, 2018

    Childhood victimization is an important risk factor for later immune-related disorders. Previous evidence has demonstrated that childhood victimization is associated with elevated levels of inflammation biomarkers measured decades after exposure. However, it is unclear whether this association is (1) already detectable in young people, (2) different in males and females, and (3) confounded by genetic liability to inflammation. Here we sought to address these questions.

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  • The Developmental Nature of the Victim-Offender Overlap

    Ambler L. Beckley, 2018

    It is well-established that victims and offenders are often the same people, a phenomenon known as the victim-offender overlap, but the developmental nature of this overlap remains uncertain. In this study, we drew from a developmental theoretical framework to test effects of genetics, individual characteristics, and routine activity-based risks. Drawing from developmental literature, we additionally tested the effect of an accumulation of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs).

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  • Genetic analysis of social-class mobility in five longitudinal studies

    Daniel W. Belsky, 2018

    A summary genetic measure, called a “polygenic score,” derived from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of education can modestly predict a person’s educational and economic success. This prediction could signal a biological mechanism: Education linked genetics could encode characteristics that help people get ahead in life. Alternatively, prediction could reflect social history: People from well-off families might stay well-off for social reasons, and these families might also look alike genetically. So, which is it?

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  • Protective Factors for Psychotic Symptoms Among Poly-victimized Children

    Eloise Crush, 2018

    Experiencing victimization in early life has been repeatedly shown to be associated with the emergence of psychotic symptoms in childhood. However, most victimized children do not develop psychotic symptoms and why this occurs is not fully understood. This study investigated which individual, family-level, and wider community characteristics were associated with an absence of psychotic symptoms among children at risk for psychosis by virtue of their exposure to multiple victimization experiences (poly-victimization).

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  • Girls get by with a little help from their friends: gender differences in protective effects of social support for psychotic phenomena amongst poly-victimised adolescents

    Eloise Crush, 2018

    In this study, we investigate whether social support (from family, friends, and overall) is protective for psychotic experiences similarly among poly-victimised adolescent girls and boys.

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  • Protective factors for psychotic experiences amongst adolescents exposed to multiple forms of victimization

    Eloise Crush, 2018

    Experiencing multiple types of victimization (poly-victimization) during adolescence is associated with the onset of psychotic experiences (such as hearing voices, having visions, or being extremely paranoid). However, many poly-victimized adolescents will not develop such subclinical phenomena and the factors that protect them are unknown. This study investigated whether individual, family, or community-level characteristics were associated with an absence of psychotic experiences amongst poly-victimized adolescents.

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  • Characterizing genetic and environmental influences on variable DNA methylation using monozygotic and dizygotic twins

    Eilis Hannon, 2018

    Variation in DNA methylation is being increasingly associated with health and disease outcomes. Although DNA methylation is hypothesized to be a mechanism by which both genetic and non-genetic factors can influence the regulation of gene expression, little is known about the extent to which DNA methylation at specific sites is influenced by heritable as well as environmental factors.

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  • Childhood Maltreatment Predicts Poor Economic and Educational Outcomes in the Transition to Adulthood

    Sara R. Jaffee, 2018

    In this study, we test whether childhood maltreatment was a predictor of (1) having low educational qualifications and (2) not being in education, employment, or training among young adults in twenty first century Britain.

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  • Analysis of DNA Methylation in Young People: Limited Evidence for an Association Between Victimization Stress and Epigenetic Variation in Blood

    Sarah J. Marzi, 2018

    DNA methylation has been proposed as an epigenetic mechanism by which early-life experiences become “embedded” in the genome and alter transcriptional processes to compromise health. In this report we sought to investigate whether early-life victimization stress is associated with genome-wide DNA methylation.

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  • Lonely young adults in modern Britain: findings from an epidemiological cohort study

    Timothy Matthews, 2018

    In this study, we aim to build a detailed, integrative profile of the correlates of young adults’ feelings of loneliness, in terms of their current health and functioning and their childhood experiences and circumstances.

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  • Associations between adolescent cannabis use and neuropsychological decline: a longitudinal co-twin control study

    Madeline H. Meier, 2018

    This study tested whether adolescents who used cannabis or met criteria for cannabis dependence showed neuropsychological impairment prior to cannabis initiation and neuropsychological decline from before to after cannabis initiation.

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  • Cumulative Effects of Neighbourhood Social Adversity and Personal Crime Victimization on Adolescent Psychotic Experiences

    Joanne B. Newbury, 2018

    Very little is known about the impact of urbanicity, adverse neighbourhood conditions and violent crime victimization on the emergence of adolescent psychotic experiences. Here, we aim to address that.

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  • Measuring childhood maltreatment to predict early-adult psychopathology: Comparison of prospective informant-reports and retrospective self-reports

    Joanne B. Newbury, 2018

    Both prospective informant-reports and retrospective self-reports may be used to measure childhood maltreatment, though both methods entail potential limitations such as underestimation and memory biases. The validity and utility of standard measures of childhood maltreatment requires clarification in order to inform the design of future studies investigating the mental health consequences of maltreatment. This study assessed agreement between prospective informant-reports and retrospective self-reports of childhood maltreatment, as well as the comparative utility of both reports for predicting a range of psychiatric problems at age 18.

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  • Adolescent Victimization and Early-Adult Psychopathology: Approaching Causal Inference Using a Longitudinal Twin Study to Rule Out Noncausal Explanations

    Jonathan D. Schaefer, 2018

    Adolescence is the peak age for both victimization and mental disorder onset. Previous research has reported associations between victimization exposure and many psychiatric conditions. However, causality remains controversial. In this report, we tested whether seven types of adolescent victimization increased risk of multiple psychiatric conditions and approached causal inference by systematically ruling out noncausal explanations.

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  • Associations between abuse/neglect and ADHD from childhood to young adulthood: A prospective nationally-representative twin study

    Adi Stern, 2018

    Child maltreatment has consistently been found to be associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the robustness of this association and the direction of the link between maltreatment and ADHD remain unclear. Here we investigate the associations between exposure to abuse/neglect and ADHD in childhood and in young adulthood, and to test their robustness and specificity. We also test the longitudinal associations between abuse/neglect and ADHD from childhood to young adulthood, controlling for confounders.

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  • From Childhood Conduct Problems to Poor Functioning at Age 18 Years: Examining Explanations in a Longitudinal Cohort Study

    Jasmin Wertz, 2018

    Childhood conduct problems are associated with poor functioning in early adulthood. In this study, we test a series of hypotheses to understand the mechanisms underlying this association.

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  • Genetics and Crime: Integrating New Genomic Discoveries Into Psychological Research About Antisocial Behaviour

    Jasmin Wertz, 2018

    Drawing on psychological and sociological theories of crime causation, we test the hypothesis that genetic risk for low educational attainment (assessed via a genome-wide polygenic score) is associated with criminal offending. We further tested hypotheses of how polygenic risk relates to the development of antisocial behaviour from childhood through adulthood.

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2017

  • Annual Research Review: The persistent and pervasive impact of being bullied in childhood and adolescence: implications for policy and practice

    Louise Arseneault, 2017

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  • Protective Factors for Psychotic Symptoms Among Poly-victimized Children

    Eloise Crush, 2017

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  • The Origins of Cognitive Deficits in Victimized Children: Implications for Neuroscientists and Clinicians

    Andrea Danese, 2017

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  • ADHD and Sleep Quality: Longitudinal Analyses From Childhood to Early Adulthood in a Twin Cohort

    Alice M. Gregory, 2017

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  • Buffering effects of safe, supportive, and nurturing relationships among women with childhood histories of maltreatment

    Sara R. Jaffee, 2017

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  • Cumulative Effects of Neighborhood Social Adversity and Personal Crime Victimization on Adolescent Psychotic Experiences

    Joanne Newbury, 2017

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  • In the eye of the beholder: Perceptions of neighborhood adversity and psychotic experiences in adolescence

    Joanne Newbury, 2017

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  • Measuring childhood maltreatment to predict early-adult psychopathology: Comparison of prospective informant-reports and retrospective self-reports

    Joanne Newbury, 2017

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  • Sleeping with one eye open: loneliness and sleep quality in young adults

    Timothy Matthews, 2017

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  • Postpartum depression mediates the intergenerational transmission of childhood maltreatment and psychological sequelae in a longitudinal birth cohort

    Karmel Choi, 2017

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  • Child vs Adult Onset of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder—Reply

    Louise Arseneault, 2017

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2016

  • Evaluation of the Persistence, Remission, and Emergence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Young Adulthood

    Jessica C. Agnew-Blais, 2016

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  • Childhood Bullying Victimization and Overweight in Young Adulthood: A Cohort Study

    Jessie R. Baldwin, 2016

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  • Committed to work but vulnerable: self-perceptions and mental health in NEET 18-year olds from a contemporary British cohort

    Sidra Goldman-Mellor, 2016

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  • Life Span Studies of ADHD—Conceptual Challenges and Predictors of Persistence and Outcome

    Arthur Caye, 2016

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  • Social isolation, loneliness and depression in young adulthood: a behavioural genetic analysis

    Timothy Matthews, 2016

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  • Why are Children in Urban Neighborhoods at Increased Risk for Psychotic Symptoms? Findings From a UK Longitudinal Cohort Study

    Joanne Newbury, 2016

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  • Parental monitoring and knowledge: Testing bidirectional associations with youths’ antisocial behavior

    Jasmin Wertz, 2016

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  • Etiology of Pervasive Versus Situational Antisocial Behaviors: A Multi-Informant Longitudinal Cohort Study

    Jasmin Wertz, 2016

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2015

  • Measuring adolescents’ exposure to victimization: The Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study

    Helen L. Fisher, 2015

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  • Methylomic analysis of monozygotic twins discordant for childhood psychotic symptoms

    Helen L. Fisher, 2015

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  • Social Isolation and Mental Health at Primary and Secondary School Entry: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    Timothy Matthews, 2015

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  • Methylomic markers of persistent childhood asthma: a longitudinal study of asthma-discordant monozygotic twins

    Therese M. Murphy, 2015

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  • Living alongside more affluent neighbors predicts greater involvement in antisocial behavior among low-income boys

    Candice L. Odgers, 2015

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  • Intimate partner violence and new-onset depression: A longitudinal study of women's childhood and adult histories of abuse

    Isabelle Ouellet-Morin, 2015

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  • Why some children with externalising problems develop internalising symptoms: testing two pathways in a genetically sensitive cohort study

    Jasmin Wertz, 2015

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2014

  • Leptin deficiency in maltreated children

    A Danese, 2014

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  • Is childhood cruelty to animals a marker for physical maltreatment in a prospective cohort study of children?

    Fiona S. McEwena, 2014

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2013

  • Chronic bullying victimization across school transitions: The role of genetic and environmental influences

    Lucy Bowes, 2013

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  • Safe, Stable, Nurturing Relationships Break the Intergenerational Cycle of Abuse: A Prospective Nationally Representative Cohort of Children in the United Kingdom

    Sara R. Jaffee, 2013

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  • Childhood exposure to violence and lifelong health: Clinical intervention science and stress-biology research join forces

    Terrie E. Moffitt, 2013

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  • Increased serotonin transporter gene (SERT) DNA methylation is associated with bullying victimization and blunted cortisol response to stress in childhood: a longitudinal study of discordant monozygotic twins

    I. Ouellet-Morin, 2013

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  • Exposure to violence during childhood is associated with telomere erosion from 5 to 10 years of age: a longitudinal study

    I Shalev, 2013

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2012

  • Etiological features of borderline personality related characteristics in a birth cohort of 12-year-old children

    Daniel W. Belsky, 2012

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  • Bullying victimisation and risk of self harm in early adolescence: longitudinal cohort study

    Helen L Fisher, 2012

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  • Maternal Insomnia and Children’s Family Socialization Environments

    Alice M. Gregory, 2012

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  • Supportive parenting mediates widening neighborhood socioeconomic disparities in children’s antisocial behavior from ages 5 to 12

    Candice L. Odgers, 2012

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  • A prospective longitudinal study of children’s theory of mind and adolescent involvement in bullying

    Sania Shakoor, 2012

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2011

  • Childhood Trauma and Children's Emerging Psychotic Symptoms: A Genetically Sensitive Longitudinal Cohort Study

    Louise Arseneault, 2011

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  • Biological embedding of stress through inflammation processes in childhood

    Andrea Danese, 2011

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  • Predictors and Outcomes of Joint Trajectories of Callous-Unemotional Traits and Conduct Problems in Childhood

    Nathalie M.G. Fontaine, 2011

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  • A gradient of childhood self-control predicts health, wealth, and public safety

    Terrie E. Moffitt, 2011

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  • A Discordant Monozygotic Twin Design Shows Blunted Cortisol Reactivity Among Bullied Children

    Isabelle Ouellet-Morin, 2011

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  • Blunted Cortisol Responses to Stress Signal Social and Behavioral Problems Among Maltreated/Bullied 12-Year-Old Children

    Isabelle Ouellet-Morin, 2011

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  • Mothers and Children as Informants of Bullying Victimization: Results from an Epidemiological Cohort of Children

    Sania Shakoor, 2011

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  • Serotonin transporter gene moderates childhood maltreatment's effects on persistent but not single-episode depression: Replications and implications for resolving inconsistent results

    Rudolf Uher, 2011

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  • A Longitudinal Twin Study of Skewed X Chromosome Inactivation

    Chloe C.Y. Wong, 2011

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  • Interaction of FKBP5 Gene Variants and Adverse Life Events in Predicting Depression Onset: Results From a 10-Year Prospective Community Study

    Petra Zimmermann, 2011

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2010

  • Bullying victimization in youths and mental health problems: ‘Much ado about nothing’?

    L. Arseneault, 2010

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  • Context and Sequelae of Food Insecurity in Children’s Development

    Daniel W. Belsky, 2010

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  • Families promote emotional and behavioural resilience to bullying: evidence of an environmental effect

    Lucy Bowes, 2010

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  • The Challenging Pupil in the Classroom: The Effect of the Child on the Teacher

    Renate M. Houts, 2010

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  • Etiological and Clinical Features of Childhood Psychotic Symptoms

    Guilherme Polanczyk, 2010

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  • Implications of Extending the ADHD Age-of-Onset Criterion to Age 12: Results from a Prospectively Studied Birth Cohort

    Guilherme Polanczyk, 2010

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  • Serotonin Transporter Gene Moderates the Development of Emotional Problems Among Children Following Bullying Victimization

    Karen Sugden, 2010

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  • A longitudinal study of epigenetic variation in twins

    Chloe Chung Yi Wong, 2010

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2009

  • School, Neighborhood, and Family Factors Are Associated With Children’s Bullying Involvement: A Nationally Representative Longitudinal Study

    Lucy Bowes, 2009

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  • Five-year predictive validity of DSM-IV conduct disorder research diagnosis in 4½–5-year-old children

    Julia Kim-Cohen, 2009

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  • Mental Health Context of Food Insecurity: a Representative Cohort of Families With Young Children

    Maria Melchior, 2009

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  • The Protective Effects of Neighborhood Collective Efficacy on British Children Growing Up in Deprivation: A Developmental Analysis

    Candice L. Odgers, 2009

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  • Protective Effect of CRHR1 Gene Variants on the Development of Adult Depression Following Childhood Maltreatment

    Guilherme Polanczyk, 2009

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2008

  • Being Bullied as an Environmentally Mediated Contributing Factor to Children’s Internalizing Problems

    L. Arseneault, 2008

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  • Genetic and environmental influences on victims, bullies and bully-victims in childhood

    Harriet A. Ball, 2008

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  • A Replicated Molecular Genetic Basis for Subtyping Antisocial Behavior in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Avshalom Caspi, 2008

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  • Unintentional Injuries in a Twin Study of Preschool Children: Environmental, Not Genetic, Risk Factors

    Juan R. Ordoñana, 2008

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2007

  • Moderation of breastfeeding effects on the IQ by genetic variation in fatty acid metabolism

    Avshalom Caspi, 2007

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  • Individual, family, and neighborhood factors distinguish resilient from non-resilient maltreated children: A cumulative stressors model

    Sara R. Jaffee, 2007

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  • Birthweight Predicts IQ: Fact or Artefact?

    Rhiannon Newcombe, 2007

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2006

  • Bullying Victimization Uniquely Contributes to Adjustment Problems in Young Children: A Nationally Representative Cohort Study

    Louise Arseneault, 2006

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  • The Caregiving Environments Provided to Children by Depressed Mothers With or Without an Antisocial History

    Julia Kim-Cohen, 2006

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  • MAOA, maltreatment, and gene–environment interaction predicting children’s mental health: new evidence and a meta-analysis

    Julia Kim-Cohen, 2006

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  • Genetic Influences on the Overlap Between Low IQ and Antisocial Behavior in Young Children

    Karestan C. Koenen, 2006

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  • Prediction of Heterogeneity in Intelligence and Adult Prognosis by Genetic Polymorphisms in the Dopamine System Among Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Jonathan Mill, 2006

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  • Evidence for Monozygotic Twin (MZ) Discordance in Methylation Level at Two CpG Sites in the Promoter Region of the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Gene

    Jonathan Mill, 2006

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  • Revisiting the Association Between Reading Achievement and Antisocial Behavior: New Evidence of an Environmental Explanation From a Twin Study

    Kali H. Trzesniewski, 2006

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2005

  • Origins of Individual Differences in Theory of Mind: From Nature to Nurture?

    Claire Hughes, 2005

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  • Psychometric Evaluation of 5- and 7-Year-Old Children’s Self-Reports of Conduct Problems

    Louise Arseneault, 2005

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  • Nature vs nurture: Genetic vulnerabilities interact with physical maltreatment to promote conduct problems

    Sara R. Jaffee, 2005

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  • Maternal Depression and Children’s Antisocial Behavior

    Julia Kim-Cohen, 2005

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  • Validity of DSM-IV Conduct Disorder in 4½–5-Year-Old Children: A Longitudinal Epidemiological Study

    Julia Kim-Cohen, 2005

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2004

  • What Effect Does Classroom Separation Have on Twins’ Behaviour, Progress at School, and Reading Abilities?

    Lucy Tully, 2004

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  • Maternal Expressed Emotion Predicts Children’s Antisocial Behavior Problems: Using Monozygotic-Twin Differences to Identify Environmental Effects on Behavioral Development

    Avshalom Caspi, 2004

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  • Physical Maltreatment Victim to Antisocial Child: Evidence of an Environmentally Mediated Process

    Sara R. Jaffee, 2004

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  • The Limits of Child Effects: Evidence for Genetically Mediated Child Effects on Corporal Punishment but Not on Physical Maltreatment

    Sara R. Jaffee, 2004

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  • Genetic and Environmental Processes in Young Children's Resilience and Vulnerability to Socioeconomic Deprivation

    Julia Kim-Cohen, 2004

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  • Co-Occurrence of ADHD and Low IQ Has Genetic Origins

    J. Kuntsi, 2004

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  • Prenatal Smoking and Early ChildhoodConduct Problems

    Barbara Maughan, 2004

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  • Sex Differences in Developmental Reading Disability

    Michael Rutter, 2004

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  • The Consequences of Selective Participation on Behavioral-Genetic Findings: Evidence from Simulated and Real Data

    Alan Taylor, 2004

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  • Does Maternal Warmth Moderate the Effects of Birth Weight on Twins’ Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms and Low IQ?

    Lucy A. Tully, 2004

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2003

  • Strong genetic effects on cross-situational antisocial behaviour among 5-year-old children according to mothers, teachers, examiner-observers, and twins self-reports

    Louise Arseneault, 2003

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  • Life With (or Without) Father: The Benefits of Living With Two Biological Parents Depend on the Father's Antisocial Behavior

    Sara R. Jaffee, 2003

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  • Domestic violence is associated with environmental suppression of IQ in young children

    Karestan C. Koenen, 2003

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  • Maternal adjustment, parenting and child behaviour in families of school-aged twins conceived after IVF and ovulation induction

    Lucy A. Tully, 2003

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2002

  • ‘I’m gonna beat you!’ SNAP!: an observational paradigm for assessing young children’s disruptive behaviour in competitive play

    Claire Hughes, 2002

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  • Influence of Adult Domestic Violence on Children’s Internalizing and Externalizing Problems: An Environmentally Informative Twin Study

    Sara R. Jaffee, 2002

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  • Teen-aged mothers in contemporary Britain

    Terrie E. Moffitt, 2002

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2001

  • Can Women Provide Reliable Information about Their Children's Fathers? Cross-informant Agreement about Men's Lifetime Antisocial Behaviour

    Avshalom Caspi, 2001

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